Beryllium dating method
It has many unique chemical properties, being less dense than aluminum and stronger than steel (EPA 1998b).
Because of its small atomic size, its most stable compounds are formed with small anions, such as fluoride and oxide.
(2007) believe that the number is far higher because OSHA has not sampled for beryllium in military and nuclear-weapons cycle workplaces.
Other workplaces, such as those recycling electronic equipment, may also be a source of previously unsuspected exposure.
It is now used in a wide variety of products in about a dozen industries (see Table 2-4). (2007), its diverse uses may put a growing number of workers at risk of beryllium exposure. (2004) relied on sampling compliance data from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to estimate that 134,000 U. workers are potentially exposed to beryllium; however, Kreiss et al.
In humans, residence times in the lung were assumed to Altimeters, braking systems, bushings and bearings for landing gear, electronic and electric connectors, engines, gyroscopes, mirrors (for example, in space telescopes), precision tools, rockets, satellites, structural components be years because of the presence of insoluble beryllium many years after cessation of occupational exposure (ATSDR 2002).
Substantial fractions of inhaled beryllium doses are removed by mucociliary clearance and enter the gastrointestinal tract.
Gastrointestinal absorption is less than 1%, so most beryllium taken in orally and much taken in by inhalation (that is cleared and subsequently ingested) is excreted in feces (EPA 1998b).
Beryllium that is cleared from the lung and absorbed into the systemic circulation is distributed primarily to the skeleton, liver, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes.
In its review of beryllium, ATSDR (2002) reported that surveys have detected beryllium in less than 10% of samples of U. surface water and springs, but detection limits are not reported in the review. air have typically been less than the detection limit of 0.03 ng/m (ATSDR 2002).